Content - Richard Lundström
Layout - Sebastian Bianchi 


This Bavarian Flak Offizier-Stellvertreter is wearing the usual M1916 south German style ribbon bar.  It is always difficult to determine exactly what ribbons may be when this style was photographed. As a Bavarian, he wears the war ribbon of a Military Merit Cross before his Prussian Iron Cross 2nd Class, followed by two other ribbons-one of which must be a Bavarian Long Service award. The huge chevrons normally denoted a Feldwebel: since Vizefeldwebels could also hold "Officer-Deputy" wartime rank, he wanted to indicate that he held higher permanent rank.


This Unteroffizier returned from the front to serve as a Landsturm squad leader back home in Bavaria in 1917 is wearing the south German convertible hook back medal and ribbon bar mounting as a large ribbon bar.  Frontline wear of such a large ribbon bar was unlikely.


Unteroffizier Josef Häusler of Bavarian Infantry Regiment 20 is wearing his south German hook back bar with medals, in this photo taken in Landau im Bodensee 2 February 1919.



This portrait of Austro-Hungarian Feldmarschall-leutnant Franz Ritter Höfer von Feldsturm (1861-1918) shows a typical Habsburg ribbon bar, with full sized 40 mm ribbons overlapping each other and sewn into a single row.




Dated from a small town in Brunswick in September 1918, this Engineering Petty Officer Third Class is wearing the sort of lapel bow normally seen in civilian dress on his dress "monkey" jacket. A 1914 Iron Cross covers another ribbon.



Hauptmann Beeckmann of Fahrabteilung 1 in 1929 is wearing a version of service dress with NO ribbon bar, but the ribbon of his highest award-the Prussian Hohenzollern House Order 3rd Class with Swords (note the crown and crossed swords ribbon devices)-from his 2nd buttonhole.  Many WW1 awards were worn this way-normally the Iron Cross 2nd Class was worn here when no ribbon bar was worn.  Buttonhole wear of some valor decorations and the 1941-42 East Medal continued through 1945